Jun 12, 2016 - Apologetics    No Comments

智慧与知识

编辑自:范泰尔《为真理辩护》第一章(王志勇牧师 译)

       在亚当犯罪之前,上帝的法度造在了人的本性之中。只有当人遵行上帝的法度的时候,他才是按他自己的本性而行动,反之亦然。如果他要按自己的本性生活,他就是遵行上帝的法度。

       当人堕落的时候,人所想的其实就是在各个方面都脱离上帝而独立行事,也就是说他丧失在真正的智慧。人为他自己设定了某种虚假的、错误的知识的模式。过去人是在上帝的引导下去解释这个世界,现在他所寻求的是独立对这个世界作出解释,甚至试图寻求涵盖一切的知识,但这是与人的受造性相冲突的。

       在基督里,人被重新调整过来,恢复到真正的知识。在基督里,人认识到自己是上帝的受造物,他不必寻求全面性知识。基督就是我们的智慧。他是我们的智慧,不仅仅是说他告诉我们如何进天堂;他是我们的智慧,还在于他教导我们当知道的关于各样事情的一切真知识。

Jun 4, 2016 - Notes    No Comments

The Different Types of Prayer

What are the different types of prayer?

The Bible reveals many types of prayers and employs a variety of words to describe the practice. For example, 1 Timothy 2:1 says, “First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people.” Here, all four of the main Greek words used for prayer are mentioned in one verse.

Here are the main types of prayers in the Bible:

The prayer of faith: James 5:15 says, “And the prayer of faith will save the one who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up.” In this context, prayer is offered in faith for someone who is sick, asking God to heal. When we pray, we are to believe in the power and goodness of God (Mark 9:23).

The prayer of agreement (also known as corporate prayer): After Jesus’ ascension, the disciples “all joined together constantly in prayer” (Acts 1:14). Later, after Pentecost, the early church “devoted themselves” to prayer (Acts 2:42). Their example encourages us to pray with others.

The prayer of request (or supplication): We are to take our requests to God. Philippians 4:6 teaches, “Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.” Part of winning the spiritual battle is to be “praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication” (Ephesians 6:18).

The prayer of thanksgiving: We see another type of prayer in Philippians 4:5: thanksgiving or thanks to God. “With thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.” Many examples of thanksgiving prayers can be found in the Psalms.

The prayer of worship: The prayer of worship is similar to the prayer of thanksgiving. The difference is that worship focuses on who God is; thanksgiving focuses on what God has done. Church leaders in Antioch prayed in this manner with fasting: “While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, ‘Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.’ Then after fasting and praying they laid their hands on them and sent them off” (Acts 13:2-3).

The prayer of consecration: Sometimes, prayer is a time of setting ourselves apart to follow God’s will. Jesus made such a prayer the night before His crucifixion: “And going a little farther he fell on his face and prayed, saying, ‘My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will’” (Matthew 26:39).

The prayer of intercession: Many times, our prayers include requests for others as we intercede for them. We are told to make intercession “for everyone” in 1 Timothy 2:1. Jesus serves as our example in this area. The whole of John 17 is a prayer of Jesus on behalf of His disciples and all believers.

The prayer of imprecation 詛咒: Imprecatory prayers are found in the Psalms (e.g., 7, 55, 69). They are used to invoke God’s judgment on the wicked and thereby avenge the righteous. The psalmists use this type of appeal to emphasize the holiness of God and the surety of His judgment. Jesus teaches us to pray for blessing on our enemies, not cursing (Matthew 5:44-48).

The Bible also speaks of praying in the Spirit (1 Corinthians 14:14-15) and prayers when we are unable to think of adequate words (Romans 8:26-27). In those times, the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us.

Prayer is conversation with God and should be made without ceasing (1 Thessalonians 5:16-18). As we grow in our love for Jesus Christ, we will naturally desire to talk to Him.

http://www.gotquestions.org/types-of-prayer.html

May 25, 2016 - Notes    No Comments

改革宗的三个分支

荷兰改革宗(Dutch Reformed)

  • 代表人物有 Abraham Kuyper、Herman Bavinck 和 Louis Berkhof,还有 Richard Mouw,Alvin Plantinga 以及 Nicholas Woltertorff。
  • 其最重要、意义最为深远的信经和信条是 “三项联合信条 Three Forms of Unity” 有《比利时信条 Belgic Confession》、《海德堡教理问答 Heidelberg Catechism》和《多特信条 The Canons of Dort》。
  • 与这个传统关联的院校有加尔文学院和神学院(Calvin College and Seminary),受其影响稍弱的 Free University of Amsterdam,还有一些在加拿大、南非和印尼的院校。
  • 受其影响的新教教派有基督教改革宗教会(Christian Reformed Church, CRC),美洲改革宗教会(Reformed Church in America, RCA)和联合改革宗教会(United Reformed Church, URC,是新近从 CRC 出现的分支)。

 

苏格兰改革宗(Scottish Reformed)

  • 是受诺克斯 (John Knox) 影响下在苏格兰出现的苏格兰改革宗神学。
  • 此传统产生了一群清教徒神学家,如 约翰·欧文 John Owen,巴克斯特 Richard Baxter 和 爱德华兹 Jonathan Edwards,后由 “老普林斯顿” (Old Princeton) 传承下来。领军人物有 沃菲尔德 B. B. Warfield、贺智 Charles Hodge 等。
  • 与此关联的学校有威斯敏斯德神学院(Westminster Theological Seminary),改革宗神学院(Reformed Theological Seminary)和 圣约神学院(Covenant Theological Seminary),还有美南浸信会神学院 (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary)。
  • 认信的是 “威斯敏斯德准则 Westminster Standards”,即《威斯敏斯德信条 Westminster Confession of Faith》、《威斯敏斯德大要理问答 Westminster Larger Catechism》、《威斯敏斯德小要理问答 Westminster Shorter Catechism》。
  • 受这个传统影响的宗派包括美洲长老会(Presbyterian Church in America, PCA),正统长老会(Orthodox Presbyterian Church, OPC)以及美国长老会(Presbyterian Church, USA)。
  • 受这两种传统影响的学者有 霍志恒 (Geerhardus Vos),范泰尔(Cornelius Van Til) 和 薛华、霍顿。但更多时候,两支传统并无交集。

 

清教徒改革宗(Puritan Reformed)

清教徒作为一个基督徒现象,人员来源很复杂,有来自英格兰圣公会,也有来自苏格兰改革宗教会,有温和和极端两类。其中美国以 Jonathan Edwards 典型为美国最后一个清教徒神学代表。除了坚持新教改革宗的圣经基本真理外,他们的神学特点是:

  1. 拒绝主教制,坚持个人主义的解经模式;
  2. 热心参与政治,试图在地上建立政教合一的基督教国家;
  3. 教会公理制管理,通过教会会众民主管理选举或拒绝牧师。
  4. 重视盟约神学。


1750年六月二十二日,北安普敦公理会以二百三十票对二十三票,通过辞退 Jonathan Edwards。这并不是偶然的事件,他先前谴责 “半途信约”,决定只有真正清楚重生得救,而有良好品德的人,才可以有资格领受圣餐。使得有些放纵的青年受到指责,家长认为有失体面,反对他的人,就乘机煽动,造成教会辞退忠心服事24年的牧师。其后他转往另一小镇的教会,专事向印地安人传福音。

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